Interviews, Focus Groups, Shared Remembering


An interview is generally a qualitative research technique that involves asking open-ended questions to converse with respondents and collect data about a subject. At times, closed interview questions are used in order to support structured comparison or social network analysis. Focus groups are similar to interviews but involve a group of participants, who can dialogue about the questions. Focus groups are preferred where individuals may be hesitant to respond or when dialogue is likely to promote deeper thinking and community discussion.


In Mark and Lyons paper, phenomenological analysis of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Māori spiritual healers revealed that Māori cultural perspectives influenced views of the mind, body, spirit and healers also identified two additional aspects as significant and fundamental to a person’s health, namely whānau/whakapapa [family and genealogy] and whenua [land]. This research informs models and policy for Māori health care.


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    Hak, S., McAndrew, J., & Neef, A. (2018). Impact of government policies and corporate land grabs on indigenous people’s access to common lands and livelihood resilience in northeast Cambodia. Land, 7(4), 122.
  • Mark, G. T., & Lyons, A. C. (2010). Maori healers’ views on wellbeing: The importance of mind, body, spirit, family and land. Social science & medicine, 70(11), 1756-1764.
  • Danto, D. (2018). The Medicine Wheel and Resilience within an Indigenous Community in Northern Ontario. J Depress Anxiety, 7(299), 2167-1044.
  • Galway, L. P., Esquega, E., & Jones-Casey, K. (2022). “Land is everything, land is us”: Exploring the connections between climate change, land, and health in Fort William First Nation. Social Science & Medicine, 294, 114700.